Assesses for medial collateral ligament (MCL) stability.

Performing the Test

  1. With knee relaxed at 30° of flexion, examiner places hand on lateral aspect of knee and other hand grasps the lower leg
  2. Apply valgus (lateral to medial) force on lateral aspect of knee and the other pulling the leg laterally at the ankle
  3. Repeat with knee in full extension
  4. Positive test: excessive medial gapping and reproduction of pain
  5. If test positive at 30°, likely MCL involvement; if positive at 0°, likely PCL/joint capsule involvement
  6. Sensitivity: 86%


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